Map loading

Last chapter we left off at creating some entities to test our rendering system, but now it's time to render a proper map. In this section we will create a text based map configuration which we will load.

Map config

First step, let's try to load a level based on a 2d map that looks like this.

    N N W W W W W W
    W W W . . . . W
    W . . . B . . W
    W . . . . . . W 
    W . P . . . . W
    W . . . . . . W
    W . . S . . . W
    W . . . . . . W
    W W W W W W W W

where:
. is an empty spot
W is a wall
P is the player
B is a box
S is a box spot
N is nothing: used for the outer edges of the map

Let's make a string for this, eventually we can load from a file but for simplicity let's go with a constant in the code for now.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
pub fn initialize_level(world: &mut World) {
    const MAP: &str = "
    N N W W W W W W
    W W W . . . . W
    W . . . B . . W
    W . . . . . . W 
    W . P . . . . W
    W . . . . . . W
    W . . S . . . W
    W . . . . . . W
    W W W W W W W W
    ";

    load_map(world, MAP.to_string());
}
}

And here is the implementation of load map.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
pub fn load_map(world: &mut World, map_string: String) {
    // read all lines
    let rows: Vec<&str> = map_string.trim().split('\n').map(|x| x.trim()).collect();

    for (y, row) in rows.iter().enumerate() {
        let columns: Vec<&str> = row.split(' ').collect();

        for (x, column) in columns.iter().enumerate() {
            // Create the position at which to create something on the map
            let position = Position {
                x: x as u8,
                y: y as u8,
                z: 0, // we will get the z from the factory functions
            };

            // Figure out what object we should create
            match *column {
                "." => create_floor(world, position),
                "W" => {
                    create_floor(world, position);
                    create_wall(world, position);
                }
                "P" => {
                    create_floor(world, position);
                    create_player(world, position);
                }
                "B" => {
                    create_floor(world, position);
                    create_box(world, position);
                }
                "S" => {
                    create_floor(world, position);
                    create_box_spot(world, position);
                }
                "N" => (),
                c => panic!("unrecognized map item {}", c),
            }
        }
    }
}
}

The most interesting Rust concept here is probably the match. We are using the basic feature of pattern matching here, we are simply matching on the values of each token found in the map config, but we could do a lot of more advanced conditions or types of patterns.

MORE: Read more about pattern matching here.

Now let's run the game and see what our map looks like.

Screenshot

Final code below.

use ggez;
use ggez::graphics;
use ggez::graphics::DrawParam;
use ggez::graphics::Image;
use ggez::nalgebra as na;
use ggez::{conf, event, Context, GameResult};
use specs::{
    join::Join, Builder, Component, ReadStorage, RunNow, System, VecStorage, World, WorldExt,
};

use std::path;

const TILE_WIDTH: f32 = 32.0;

// Components
#[derive(Debug, Component, Clone, Copy)]
#[storage(VecStorage)]
pub struct Position {
    x: u8,
    y: u8,
    z: u8,
}

#[derive(Component)]
#[storage(VecStorage)]
pub struct Renderable {
    path: String,
}

#[derive(Component)]
#[storage(VecStorage)]
pub struct Wall {}

#[derive(Component)]
#[storage(VecStorage)]
pub struct Player {}

#[derive(Component)]
#[storage(VecStorage)]
pub struct Box {}

#[derive(Component)]
#[storage(VecStorage)]
pub struct BoxSpot {}

// Systems
pub struct RenderingSystem<'a> {
    context: &'a mut Context,
}

// System implementation
impl<'a> System<'a> for RenderingSystem<'a> {
    // Data
    type SystemData = (ReadStorage<'a, Position>, ReadStorage<'a, Renderable>);

    fn run(&mut self, data: Self::SystemData) {
        let (positions, renderables) = data;

        // Clearing the screen (this gives us the backround colour)
        graphics::clear(self.context, graphics::Color::new(0.95, 0.95, 0.95, 1.0));

        // Get all the renderables with their positions and sort by the position z
        // This will allow us to have entities layered visually.
        let mut rendering_data = (&positions, &renderables).join().collect::<Vec<_>>();
        rendering_data.sort_by_key(|&k| k.0.z);

        // Iterate through all pairs of positions & renderables, load the image
        // and draw it at the specified position.
        for (position, renderable) in rendering_data.iter() {
            // Load the image
            let image = Image::new(self.context, renderable.path.clone()).expect("expected image");
            let x = position.x as f32 * TILE_WIDTH;
            let y = position.y as f32 * TILE_WIDTH;

            // draw
            let draw_params = DrawParam::new().dest(na::Point2::new(x, y));
            graphics::draw(self.context, &image, draw_params).expect("expected render");
        }

        // Finally, present the context, this will actually display everything
        // on the screen.
        graphics::present(self.context).expect("expected to present");
    }
}

// This struct will hold all our game state
// For now there is nothing to be held, but we'll add
// things shortly.
struct Game {
    world: World,
}

// This is the main event loop. ggez tells us to implement
// two things:
// - updating
// - rendering
impl event::EventHandler for Game {
    fn update(&mut self, _context: &mut Context) -> GameResult {
        Ok(())
    }

    fn draw(&mut self, context: &mut Context) -> GameResult {
        // Render game entities
        {
            let mut rs = RenderingSystem { context };
            rs.run_now(&self.world);
        }

        Ok(())
    }
}

// Register components with the world
pub fn register_components(world: &mut World) {
    world.register::<Position>();
    world.register::<Renderable>();
    world.register::<Player>();
    world.register::<Wall>();
    world.register::<Box>();
    world.register::<BoxSpot>();
}

// Create a wall entity
pub fn create_wall(world: &mut World, position: Position) {
    world
        .create_entity()
        .with(Position { z: 10, ..position })
        .with(Renderable {
            path: "/images/wall.png".to_string(),
        })
        .with(Wall {})
        .build();
}

pub fn create_floor(world: &mut World, position: Position) {
    world
        .create_entity()
        .with(Position { z: 5, ..position })
        .with(Renderable {
            path: "/images/floor.png".to_string(),
        })
        .build();
}

pub fn create_box(world: &mut World, position: Position) {
    world
        .create_entity()
        .with(Position { z: 10, ..position })
        .with(Renderable {
            path: "/images/box.png".to_string(),
        })
        .with(Box {})
        .build();
}

pub fn create_box_spot(world: &mut World, position: Position) {
    world
        .create_entity()
        .with(Position { z: 9, ..position })
        .with(Renderable {
            path: "/images/box_spot.png".to_string(),
        })
        .with(BoxSpot {})
        .build();
}

pub fn create_player(world: &mut World, position: Position) {
    world
        .create_entity()
        .with(Position { z: 10, ..position })
        .with(Renderable {
            path: "/images/player.png".to_string(),
        })
        .with(Player {})
        .build();
}

// Initialize the level
pub fn initialize_level(world: &mut World) {
    const MAP: &str = "
    N N W W W W W W
    W W W . . . . W
    W . . . B . . W
    W . . . . . . W 
    W . P . . . . W
    W . . . . . . W
    W . . S . . . W
    W . . . . . . W
    W W W W W W W W
    ";

    load_map(world, MAP.to_string());
}

pub fn load_map(world: &mut World, map_string: String) {
    // read all lines
    let rows: Vec<&str> = map_string.trim().split('\n').map(|x| x.trim()).collect();

    for (y, row) in rows.iter().enumerate() {
        let columns: Vec<&str> = row.split(' ').collect();

        for (x, column) in columns.iter().enumerate() {
            // Create the position at which to create something on the map
            let position = Position {
                x: x as u8,
                y: y as u8,
                z: 0, // we will get the z from the factory functions
            };

            // Figure out what object we should create
            match *column {
                "." => create_floor(world, position),
                "W" => {
                    create_floor(world, position);
                    create_wall(world, position);
                }
                "P" => {
                    create_floor(world, position);
                    create_player(world, position);
                }
                "B" => {
                    create_floor(world, position);
                    create_box(world, position);
                }
                "S" => {
                    create_floor(world, position);
                    create_box_spot(world, position);
                }
                "N" => (),
                c => panic!("unrecognized map item {}", c),
            }
        }
    }
}
pub fn main() -> GameResult {
    let mut world = World::new();
    register_components(&mut world);
    initialize_level(&mut world);

    // Create a game context and event loop
    let context_builder = ggez::ContextBuilder::new("rust_sokoban", "sokoban")
        .window_setup(conf::WindowSetup::default().title("Rust Sokoban!"))
        .window_mode(conf::WindowMode::default().dimensions(800.0, 600.0))
        .add_resource_path(path::PathBuf::from("./resources"));

    let (context, event_loop) = &mut context_builder.build()?;

    // Create the game state
    let game = &mut Game { world };
    // Run the main event loop
    event::run(context, event_loop, game)
}

CODELINK: You can see the full code in this example here.